Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.
Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ...? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.
However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ...The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.
The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, ..., more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.
21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.
A. will ease train operators’ burden
B. has kept pace with inflation
C. is a big surprise to commuters
D. remains an unreasonable measure
22. The stockbroker in Paragraph 2 is used to stand for ______.
A. car drivers
B. rail travellers
C. local investors
D. ordinary taxpayers
23. It is indicated in Paragraph 3 that train operators ______.
A. are offering compensation to commuters
B. are trying to repair relations with the unions
C. have failed to provide an adequate service
D. have suffered huge losses owing to the strikes
24. If unable to calm down passengers, the railways may have to face ______.
A. the loss of investment
B. the collapse of operations
C. a reduction of revenue
D. a change of ownership
25. Which of the following would be the best title for the text?
A. Who Are to Blame for the Strikes?
B. Constant Complaining Doesn’t Work
C. Can Nationalisation Bring Hope?
D. Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable
21. 【答案】D（remains an unreasonable measure）
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞rail passengers fares定位到第一段①句。①句沒有體現作者的觀點，因此往下看一句，定位到②句：It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual ... imposing a significant extra burden on those...由grimly（冷酷地，討厭地）和a significant extra burden（一個巨大的額外負擔）可知，作者對鐵路乘客車費上漲的態度是負面的。再根據題干關鍵詞this year’s increase定位到第一段③句：This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.（今年平均2.7%的上漲，也許比去年的上漲稍微低一些，但是它仍然遠遠高于官方消費者物價指數衡量的通貨膨脹程度）。由此進一步確定車費上漲是unreasonable（不合理的）。所以本題選D。
22. 【答案】B（rail travellers）
【解析】本題為例證題。根據題干關鍵詞stockbroker定位到例子所在句，即第二段②句：Why ... should a car-driving pensioner ... have to subsidise the daily commute of a stockbroker...?（為什么一個開車的養老金領取者必須要補貼一個股票經紀人的日常通勤呢？）再找到前面的論點句：Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer（歷屆政府允許這種上漲，因為投資和運營鐵路網的成本應該由使用它的人們來承擔，而不是一般納稅人）。這段論述認為，沒有使用鐵路網的一般納稅人如開車的養老金領取者不應該承擔鐵路網成本，使用鐵路網的人如股票經紀人才應該承擔此成本。定位句中的stockbroker指的就是論點句中的those who use it。所以本題選B。
23. 【答案】C（have failed to provide an adequate service）
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞train operators定位到第三段②句：It is all very well train operators trumpeting the improvements they are making to the network, but passengers should be able to expect a basic level of service for the substantial sums they are now paying to travel（火車運營商宣揚他們對鐵路網作出的改進無可非議，但考慮到乘客如今為出行支付的大量費用，他們理應能夠期待基本水平的服務）?？梢?，火車運營商沒能提供合格的服務。所以本題選C。
24. 【答案】D（a change of ownership）
【解析】本題為細節題。根據題干關鍵詞If unable to calm down passengers定位到第四段④句：The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order（國有化的威脅也許暫時可以避免，但是，如果乘客的正當憤怒不能被立即解決，這種威脅會卷土重來）。If unable to calm down passengers是if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order的同義表達?？梢?，如果鐵路公司不能讓乘客鎮靜下來，鐵路公司將會面臨國有化的威脅，即所有權的變更。所以本題選D。
25. 【答案】D（Ever-Rising Fares Aren’t Sustainable）
【解析】本題為主旨大意題。文章首段提出鐵路乘客車費再次上漲的問題，即文章討論的主題；二段簡單闡述歷屆政府允許車費上漲的理由；三至四段聚焦于乘客所付車費和享受到的服務不對等的問題，作者認為乘客應該受到補償，英國鐵路服務標準必須得到保障，并指出如果服務得不到保障，乘客將不會無止境地支付更多車費。D項中的Ever-Rising Fares（不斷上漲的車費）是文章討論的主題，Aren’t Sustainable（是不可持續的）是作者的觀點。D項完整地概括了全文內容。所以本題選D。